What is a Shear Wall?
• Shear wall is a structural member used to resist lateral forces, i.e., parallel to the plane of the wall.
• In other words, Shear walls are vertical elements of the horizontal force resisting system.
• Shear wall is a structural member in a reinforced concrete framed structure to resist lateral forces such as wind forces.
• This is rarely practical since it also utilizes the space a lot, so they are positioned at the ends.
• It is better to use walls with no openings in them. So, usually, the walls around lift shafts and stairwells are used.
Classification of Shear Walls:
• Column supported shear walls.
• Core type shear walls.
• Rigid frame shear walls.
• Framed walls with infilled frames.
• Simple rectangular types and flanged walls.
• They coupled shear walls.
• Cantilever Shear Wall
Types of the Shear Wall:
Type of shear wall as below
1. Concrete Shear Wall
2. Steel Plate Shear Wall
3. Plywood Shear Wall
4. RHCBM (RC Hollow Concrete Wall Masonry.)
Functions of Shear Wall:
The main functions of a Shear Wall can be described as follows :
• Strength to a building :
• Stiffness to a building :
Strength to a building
Shear Wall must provide lateral shear strength to the building to resist the horizontal earthquake forces, wind forces, and transfer these forces to the foundation.
Stiffness to a building
Shear Walls provide large stiffness to building in the direction of their orientation, which reduces the lateral sway of the building and thus reduces damage to the structure.
Purpose of Constructing This Wall:
We construct these walls to resist,
• The verticle or gravity loads on the structure.
• The counter shear and uplift forces.
• The lateral loads of earthquakes and wind.
• To make the structure more stable.
Advantages of Shear Wall
• Fast performance.
• Fast construction time.
• Significantly reduces lateral sway.
• The shear wall is very Ligh-weight.
• Shear wall one type of thinner walls.
• Easy construction and implementation.
• Enough well-distributed reinforcements.
• Shear wall Cost-effectiveness respect of earthquake.
• Minimized damages to structural and Nonstructural elements.
• Provide large strength and stiffness in the direction of orientation.
• Efficient in terms of construction cost and effectiveness in minimizing earthquake damage.
• Shear walls are generally used in high-rise buildings subject to lateral wind and seismic forces.
• For slender walls where the bending deformation is more, the Shear wall resists the loads due to Cantilever Action.
Important Point Shera Wall
• Ratio of breadth/width > 0.4
• Finished corners are possible.
• Clear surface without any offset is possible.
• Normally less consumption of bricks/blocks.
• Shear walls run along the full length of walls.
• The lateral load is resisted by shear deformation.
• The shear wall system is more efficient for high rise structures.
• Shear wall cross-section is like a vertically oriented wide beam.
• More carpet area is available as compared to the column beam system.
• Shear wall is hugely resistant to earthquakes as compared to Column.
• Shear wall minimum width should be 150 mm as per Indian Standard.
• Provision of openings in the shear wall system is tedious and needs special design skills.
• Normally consumption of concrete is more when compared to the beam-column system.
• Needs advanced skills for its placement because if not kept at the proper location, it may lead to adverse effects.